asylum law, gay, sexual orientation, LGBT, immigration


This Article surveys the law of LGBT asylum as it has developed over the past fifteen years, first, with the landmark case of Matter of Toboso-Alfonso, which recognized homosexuality as a "particular social group"; second, with the Ninth Circuit's recent cases adopting a soft immutability standard of identity and expanding asylum protection to transgender individuals; and third, with a discussion of the "particular social group" analysis as it applies to transgender asylum seekers and the emergence of the "imputed gay identity" category as an alternative basis for relief for those litigants who do not identify as gay or lesbian but who nonetheless face anti-gay or anti-lesbian persecution.



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