policing reform, crime reduction, New York policing, Boston policing, Chicago policing, problem-solving policing, community policing, broken windows policing


This article explores new forms of policing in New York, Chicago, and Boston. These cities developed new policing strategies that each involves a different combination of problem solving and new forms of "community policing". The article explores whether these developments resulted in crime reduction and changes in belief in the efficacy of policing. The article concludes by considering the costs of the resulting increased security - reduction in democratic control of policing and increased risk to civil liberties.



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