There have been three lawsuits brought that deal with these constitutional issues, two challenges to the Regulations and one opposition to a motion to withdraw, which was the VarshavskyI case that Valerie Bogart talked about. The decision in the Varshavsky case is outside. There is also a preliminary injunction decision from the case brought in Hawaii,2 of which Steve Shapiro is one of the counsel, and that decision is outside. And then, still pending is a decision on a preliminary injunction motion in a case called Velasquez,3 which was brought in the Eastern District of New York. Here to address these issues we have three distinguished experts on constitutional law: Eric Freedman, John McGinnis and Steven Shapiro,



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