joint authorship, copyright, derivative works, common design


The 1976 Copyright Act defines joint ownership as requiring an "intent" by multiple authors to merge their works into a single work. Prior to 1976, two standards of determining intent existed in the case law. One was an objective standard, known as common design, and the other was a subjective standard. In part because the 1976 Act does not mention common design, subjective intent came to dominate joint authorship jurisprudence post-1976. As a result of this dominance, many authors have been deprived of their rights. Brady argues that a new standard should be set out by the courts that once an author is aware that his work will be part of a larger work, joint authorship is established.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.