The Court of Justice is using Article 10 of the EC Treaty more frequently, in a wide variety of cases. This Article summarizes and comments briefly on more than forty cases which have been decided and issues which have arisen since the Congress of FIDE, the Fédération Internationale pour le Droit Européen, in Helsinki in 2000, where the case law on Article 10 was discussed at length. The Court is continuing to draw a variety of practical conclusions from the general words of the Article, elaborating and applying existing case-law, and ruling on both positive and negative duties resulting from Article 10.
John Temple Lang,
Developments, Issues, and New Remedies – The Duties of National Authorities and Courts Under Article 10 of the EC Treaty ,
27 Fordham Int'l L.J. 1904
Available at: https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/ilj/vol27/iss6/3