Steven Penaro


Education, schools, free speech, First Amendment, Brandenburg, Morse


This Note examines Morse v. Frederick in connection with the Brandenburg v. Ohio test governing speech that advocates unlawful acts. In Morse, the U.S. Supreme Court devised a new test that gives school officials the power to restrict student speech promoting the use of illegal drugs. However, in Brandenburg, the Supreme Court held that speech must be struck down if the speaker intends to incite imminent lawless action and that speech is likely to produce such action. This Note argues that a relaxed application of the Brandenburg standard would be useful in prohibiting student drug speech within a school setting.

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