monroe v. pape, civil rights, thurgood marshall, desegregation, education


As the first Director-Counsel of the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, otherwise known as the "Inc. Fund," Thurgood Marshall helped establish the Inc Fund's tradition of landmark civil rights litigation. Mr. Harper discusses in this article the role played by the Inc Fund and Justice Marshall in overthrowing Monroe v. Pape and its curtailment of civil rights suits against municipalities. The instrument for change was Harkdess v. Sweeny Independent School District, a suit filed on behalf of seventeen Black schoolteachers who were discriminatorily fired by a Texas school district.

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