Robert W. Piken


Urban transportation modes have been limited to private automobiles and mass transit. Problems of vehicular congestion, noise and air pollution, financial limitations constraining new highway construction, and maintenance, fuel crises, and inflationary trends in the cost of operating automobiles have caused private automobiles to become a nemesis in urban transportation systems. Mass transit is also plagued with ills. Limited financial resources have wrought a steady deterioration of service; operating costs have soared; service cuts have been made to minimize deficits while fares have been increased to raise revenue. Arguably, the net result has been substantial decrease in use, resulting in lower gross revenue. In Para-Transit,' Kirby, Bhatt, Kemp, McGillivray, and Wohl have proposed a solution to the urban transit malady. It includes sundry para-transit programs composed of conventional taxicab service, dial-a-ride service, jitneys, daily and short term rental cars, subscription bus service, and van or car pools. The distinguishing features of para-transit programs, in contrast with conventional modes, are their service characteristics.