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This paper therefore is an attempt to consider post-September 11 law enforcement activities in the context of organized policing in America. Many concepts and procedures used as illustrations have been undertaken by various police agencies. This demonstrates how previously accepted police practices may be changed in part by reaction to crisis legislation or other influences. New York City programs may or may not serve as benchmarks for other agencies. In these times of threat and response some important factors about preparing police for role change became apparent. First, there is a need to specify the new reality and determine what is to be done about it. Next, a review of legal and administrative directives would be appropriate. These two items should identify (1) the nature of the problem, (2) the legislated parties responsible for response, (3) the actual parties involved in attempts at resolution, and (4) suggested changes in mandate or practice which would provide an improved conclusion. Another basic factor for any role change in policing is to specify appropriate organizational change, if any, and delineate the nature of resources needed and of training required. Adequate and appropriate funding is a must.

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