“It is true that there are some cases in which the courts, mistaking . . . the proper limits of the relaxation of the rules for determining the unreasonableness of restraints of trade, have set sail on a sea of doubt . . . .” William Howard Taft1 “Without further elaboration, reasonableness is too vague a standard to guide the businessman’s actions or the judge’s discretion. Such openness is a mixed blessing. Unbounded by technical limitations, it reaches every evil. But unless disciplined by the purposes of antitrust laws, it is a vagrant standard.” Phillip E. Areeda2



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