Koen Lenaerts


This Article aims to examine the instrumental aspects of the European Union structure in order to elucidate the degree of federalism that it contains. The analysis considers: the status of the central authority; the constitutional embedding of the division of powers between the central authority and the component entities; the existence of mechanisms to preserve the identity of the component entities; the foundation of the constitutional order on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law; and the enforceability of the constitution.